Leukemia is defined as a cancer observed in white blood cell (WBC) in our body. White blood cell helps our body to fight against infection caused by harmful pathogen. Bone marrow is the center for the production of RBC (carry oxygen to all part of body), WBC (fight against infection) and platelets (help in blood clotting). Our bone marrow produces abnormal WBC when we are suffering from leukemia. Moreover abnormal WBCs are not able to perform normal functioning or WBC loses its ability to fight against infection. Etiology for leukemia includes artificial ionizing radiation, benzene and petrochemicals, alkylation chemotherapy agents, genetic predisposition and electromagnetic energy. Genetic predisposition and electromagnetic energy is the most common cause of leukemia observed among people. Signs and symptoms of leukemia includes a new lump or swollen gland in neck and arm, frequent nosebleed, pain in the bone, night sweat and frequent fever. Leukemia can be diagnosed by bone marrow tests, platelet count and WBC (white blood cell) differential count test. Leukemia can be treated by blood transfusion, immunotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
Commercially available drug in the market for the treatment of leukemia includes Gleevec, Bosulif, Sprycel, Iclusig and others. Drugs which are in clinical trials expected to launch in the marketwithin next few (3 to 5)years include Bosutinib, Omapro, ga101/rg7159, Vidaza, Dacogen, Midostaurin, Vosaroxin, Quizartinib, Graspa, Marqibo.
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The global market for leukemia treatment can be segmented as follows:
- Based on the developmental and progression rate
- Chronic leukemia
- Acute leukemia
Chronic leukemia is a type of blood cancer caused by uncontrolled growth of the WBC cells in our body. Chronic leukemia is a type of myeloproliferative disease which is characterized by the chromosomal translocation. Patients suffering from chronic leukemia show increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, thrombocytopenia and anemia and may also have enlarged spleen which causes pain on the left side. Incidence rate of chronic leukemia is high in men and is the second most common type of cancer occurring in male adults. Women who are above 50 years in age are expected to suffer from this chronic disease. Treatment for chronic leukemia depends on the phase of the disease that can be chronic, accelerated or the blast phase and the treatment for chronic leukemia includes chemotherapy, stem cell transplants and biologic therapies.
Acute myeloid leukemia develops at a speedy pace and is found in the blood and bone marrow. In the disease process, immature blood cells are present in the bone marrow. Symptoms found in patients due to the disease are flu, loss of weight, body ache, body pain and spots on skin.Treatment for acute leukemia includes chemotherapy, stem cell transplants and biologic therapies.
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About 90% of the leukemia cases occur in the middle age and progresses with the aging. Therefore, leukemia therapeutics market is poised to grow with the rise in aging population and increasing incidences of leukemia. Drugs such as Bosulif, Gleevec, Sprycel andIclusigare commercially available for the treatment of leukemia. Gleevec was the first leukemia drug introduced in 2001, since then there has been a revolutionary change in the quality life of patients as compared to the former chemotherapy drugs.Globally the numbers of elderly people, 60 years and above are growing and it is expected that this age group will cross the 2 billion mark in 2050 stated by United Nations Population Division. Hence the leukemia therapeutics market will also grow significantly.However adverse event (cytotoxic) associated with nearly all kinds of leukemia therapeutics treatment might restrict the global market demand of leukemia therapeutics market.
North America dominates the global market for leukemia therapeutics treatment due to high prevalence rate of leukemia (acute, chronic) and extensive technological advancement (diagnosis) in this region. Europe represents the second largest market share due to its large geriatric population base. In addition Asia-Pacific and RoW hold the third and fourth position in the global leukemia therapeutics market respectively due to less prevalence rate of leukemia and lack of proper healthcare facilities in few Asian and African countries.
North America accounted for 62% sales of leukemia drugs in the therapeutics market during 2010 followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. Leukemia therapeutics market will grow significantlyand the total growth will depend on pipeline products and metabolic inhibitors, a tyrosine kinase receptor FLT -3 of Novartis and some other capable molecules, improving the therapeutics market.
Major market playerscontributing the global market share of leukemia therapeutics treatment includes Ambit Biosciences Corporation, AriadPharmaceuticals,Inc., Biogen Idec, Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pfizer and others.